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Immediately after the transfer, Hong Kong was severely affected by several crises. The government was forced to use substantial foreign exchange reserves to maintain the Hong Kong dollar's currency peg during the Asian financial crisis ,  and the recovery from this was muted by an H5N1 avian-flu outbreak  and a housing surplus.
Political debates after the transfer of sovereignty have centred around the region's democratic development and the central government 's adherence to the "one country, two systems" principle.
After reversal of the last colonial era Legislative Council democratic reforms following the handover,  the regional government unsuccessfully attempted to enact national security legislation pursuant to Article 23 of the Basic Law.
The protests are the largest in Hong Kong history,  with organisers claiming to have attracted more than one million Hong Kong residents.
Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China , with executive, legislative, and judicial powers devolved from the national government.
The Chief Executive is the head of government and serves for a maximum of two five-year terms. The State Council led by the Premier of China appoints the Chief Executive after nomination by the Election Committee , which is composed of 1, business, community, and government leaders.
The Legislative Council has 70 members, each serving a four-year term. Thirty FC councillors are selected from limited electorates representing sectors of the economy or special interest groups,  and the remaining five members are nominated from sitting District Council members and selected in region-wide double direct elections.
The 30 limited electorate functional constituencies fill their seats using first-past-the-post or instant-runoff voting.
Twenty-two political parties had representatives elected to the Legislative Council in the election. Chinese national law does not generally apply in the region and Hong Kong is treated as a separate jurisdiction.
The territory's jurisdictional independence is most apparent in its immigration and taxation policies. The Immigration Department issues passports for permanent residents which differ from those of the mainland or Macau,  and the region maintains a regulated border with the rest of the country.
All travellers between Hong Kong and China and Macau must pass through border controls, regardless of nationality. The central government and Ministry of Foreign Affairs handle diplomatic matters, but Hong Kong retains the ability to maintain separate economic and cultural relations with foreign nations.
The territory is divided into 18 districts, each represented by a district council. These advise the government on local issues such as public facility provisioning, community programme maintenance, cultural promotion, and environmental policy.
There are a total of district council seats, of which are directly elected. Hong Kong is governed by a hybrid regime that is not fully representative of the population.
Legislative Council members elected by functional constituencies composed of professional and special interest groups are accountable to those narrow corporate electorates and not the general public.
This electoral arrangement has guaranteed a pro-establishment majority in the legislature since the transfer of sovereignty. Similarly, the Chief Executive is selected by establishment politicians and corporate members of the Election Committee rather than directly elected.
Ethnic minorities except those of European ancestry have marginal representation in government and often experience discrimination in housing, education, and employment.
Although they live and work in Hong Kong, these workers are not treated as ordinary residents and are ineligible for right of abode in the territory.
Hongkonger and foreign women and girls are forced into prostitution in brothels, homes, and businesses in the city. The Joint Declaration guarantees the Basic Law for 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty.
Hong Kong's political and judicial systems may be integrated with China's at that time, or the territory may continue to be administered separately.
In , in a period of large-scale protests, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress passed the controversial Hong Kong national security law.
Undeveloped terrain is hilly to mountainous, with very little flat land, and consists mostly of grassland, woodland, shrubland, or farmland.
Hong Kong has a humid subtropical climate Köppen Cwa , characteristic of southern China. Summer is hot and humid, with occasional showers and thunderstorms and warm air from the southwest.
Typhoons occur most often then, sometimes resulting in floods or landslides. Winters are mild and usually sunny at the beginning, becoming cloudy towards February; an occasional cold front brings strong, cooling winds from the north.
The most temperate seasons are spring and autumn, which are generally sunny and dry. Hong Kong averages 1, hours of sunshine per year;  the highest and lowest recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory are Demand for new construction has contributed to frequent demolition of older buildings, freeing space for modern high-rises.
Older government buildings are examples of colonial architecture. The Flagstaff House , the former residence of the commanding British military officer, is the oldest Western-style building in Hong Kong.
Tong lau , mixed-use tenement buildings constructed during the colonial era, blended southern Chinese architectural styles with European influences.
These were especially prolific during the immediate post-war period, when many were rapidly built to house large numbers of Chinese migrants. Mass-produced public-housing estates , built since the s, are mainly constructed in modernist style.
The predominant language is Cantonese , a variety of Chinese originating in Guangdong. It is spoken by Among the religious population, the traditional " three teachings " of China, Buddhism , Confucianism , and Taoism , have the most adherents 20 per cent , and are followed by Christianity 12 per cent and Islam 4 per cent.
Life expectancy in Hong Kong was Income inequality has risen since the transfer of sovereignty, as the region's ageing population has gradually added to the number of nonworking people.
Hong Kong has a capitalist mixed service economy , characterised by low taxation , minimal government market intervention, and an established international financial market.
Hong Kong is the tenth-largest trading entity in exports and imports , trading more goods in value than its gross domestic product. It has little arable land and few natural resources, importing most of its food and raw materials.
More than 90 per cent of Hong Kong's food is imported, including nearly all its meat and rice. Although the territory had one of Asia's largest manufacturing economies during the latter half of the colonial era, Hong Kong's economy is now dominated by the service sector.
The sector generates Since resumption of cross-boundary train service in , many rail and road links have been improved and constructed facilitating trade between regions.
Mainland firms represent over half of the Hang Seng Index value, up from five per cent in As the mainland liberalised its economy, Hong Kong's shipping industry faced intense competition from other Chinese ports.
Fifty per cent of China's trade goods were routed through Hong Kong in , dropping to about 13 per cent by The territory was the first market outside mainland China for renminbi-denominated bonds , and is one of the largest hubs for offshore renminbi trading.
The government has had a passive role in the economy. Colonial governments had little industrial policy , and implemented almost no trade controls.
Under the doctrine of " positive non-interventionism ", post-war administrations deliberately avoided the direct allocation of resources; active intervention was considered detrimental to economic growth.
Post-handover administrations continued and expanded these programmes, including export-credit guarantees, a compulsory pension scheme , a minimum wage, anti-discrimination laws , and a state mortgage backer.
Tourism is a major part of the economy, accounting for five per cent of GDP. It is the most popular Chinese city for tourists, receiving over 70 per cent more visitors than its closest competitor Macau.
Hong Kong has a highly developed, sophisticated transport network. Over 90 per cent of daily trips are made on public transport, the highest percentage in the world.
The Mass Transit Railway MTR is an extensive passenger rail network, connecting 93 metro stations throughout the territory.
Although public transport systems handle most passenger traffic, there are over , private vehicles registered in Hong Kong. Hong Kong International Airport is the territory's primary airport.
The Star Ferry operates two lines across Victoria Harbour for its 53, daily passengers. Smaller kai-to boats serve the most remote coastal settlements.
The Peak Tram , Hong Kong's first public transport system, has provided funicular rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since Hong Kong generates most of its electricity locally.
With few natural lakes and rivers, high population density, inaccessible groundwater sources, and extremely seasonal rainfall, the territory does not have a reliable source of freshwater.
The Dongjiang River in Guangdong supplies 70 per cent of the city's water,  and the remaining demand is filled by harvesting rainwater.
Broadband Internet access is widely available, with Connections over fibre-optic infrastructure are increasingly prevalent,  contributing to the high regional average connection speed of Hong Kong is characterised as a hybrid of East and West.
Traditional Chinese values emphasising family and education blend with Western ideals, including economic liberty and the rule of law.
The territory diverged from the mainland due to its long period of colonial administration and a different pace of economic, social, and cultural development.
Mainstream culture is derived from immigrants originating from various parts of China. This was influenced by British-style education, a separate political system, and the territory's rapid development during the late 20th century.
The remaining population purport mixed identities, 23 per cent as "Hongkonger in China" and 12 per cent as "Chinese in Hong Kong". Traditional Chinese family values, including family honour , filial piety , and a preference for sons , are prevalent.
The degree of its adherence to feng shui is believed to determine the success of a business. Food in Hong Kong is primarily based on Cantonese cuisine , despite the territory's exposure to foreign influences and its residents' varied origins.
Rice is the staple food, and is usually served plain with other dishes. Poultry and seafood are commonly sold live at wet markets , and ingredients are used as quickly as possible.
Dishes include congee , cha siu bao , siu yuk , egg tarts , and mango pudding. Local versions of Western food are served at cha chaan teng fast, casual restaurants.
Common cha chaan teng menu items include macaroni in soup, deep-fried French toast, and Hong Kong-style milk tea.
Hong Kong developed into a filmmaking hub during the late s as a wave of Shanghai filmmakers migrated to the territory, and these movie veterans helped rebuild the colony's entertainment industry over the next decade.
During the s, films such as A Better Tomorrow , As Tears Go By , and Zu Warriors from the Magic Mountain expanded global interest beyond martial arts films ; locally made gangster films, romantic dramas, and supernatural fantasies became popular.
The city's martial arts film roots are evident in the roles of the most prolific Hong Kong actors. At the height of the local movie industry in the early s, over films were produced each year; since then, industry momentum shifted to mainland China.
The number of films produced annually has declined to about 60 in Cantopop is a genre of Cantonese popular music which emerged in Hong Kong during the s.
Evolving from Shanghai-style shidaiqu , it is also influenced by Cantonese opera and Western pop. Western classical music has historically had a strong presence in Hong Kong, and remains a large part of local musical education.
The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra , composed of classical Chinese instruments , is the leading Chinese ensemble and plays a significant role in promoting traditional music in the community.
Despite its small area, the territory is home to a variety of sports and recreational facilities. The city has hosted a number of major sporting events, including the East Asian Games , the Summer Olympics equestrian events , and the Premier League Asia Trophy.
Hong Kong represents itself separately from mainland China, with its own sports teams in international competitions.
Lee Lai-shan won the territory's first and only Olympic gold medal at the Atlanta Olympics. No longer part of the Commonwealth of Nations , the city's last appearance in the latter was in Dragon boat races originated as a religious ceremony conducted during the annual Tuen Ng Festival.
The race was revived as a modern sport as part of the Tourism Board 's efforts to promote Hong Kong's image abroad. The first modern competition was organised in , and overseas teams began competing in the first international race in The Hong Kong Jockey Club , the territory's largest taxpayer,  has a monopoly on gambling and provides over seven per cent of government revenue.
Education in Hong Kong is largely modelled after that of the United Kingdom , particularly the English system. Much of the elderly population were not formally educated due to war and poverty.
Comprehensive schools fall under three categories: public schools, which are government-run; subsidised schools, including government aid-and-grant schools; and private schools, often those run by religious organisations and that base admissions on academic merit.
These schools are subject to the curriculum guidelines as provided by the Education Bureau. Private schools subsidised under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and international schools fall outside of this system and may elect to use differing curricula and teach using other languages.
The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction"; most schools use Cantonese as the medium of instruction , with written education in both Chinese and English.
Secondary schools emphasise "bi-literacy and tri-lingualism", which has encouraged the proliferation of spoken Mandarin language education.
Hong Kong has eleven universities. The University of Hong Kong was founded as the city's first institute of higher education during the early colonial period in Local publications are often politically affiliated, with pro-Beijing or pro-democracy sympathies.
The central government has a print-media presence in the territory through the state-owned Ta Kung Pao and Wen Wei Po. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Hong Kong disambiguation and HK disambiguation. Special administrative region of China. Special administrative region in People's Republic of China.
Special administrative region. Chinese [a] English [b]. Regional language. Official scripts. Tai Mo Shan. South China Sea.
Main article: Judiciary of Hong Kong. Main article: Architecture of Hong Kong. See also: List of tallest buildings in Hong Kong. Main article: Transport in Hong Kong.
Main article: Culture of Hong Kong. See also: Lingnan culture. Main article: Hong Kong cuisine. Main article: Cinema of Hong Kong. Main article: Music of Hong Kong.
Leslie Cheung left is considered a pioneering Cantopop artist, and Andy Lau has been an icon of Hong Kong music and film for several decades as a member of the Four Heavenly Kings.
Main article: Sport in Hong Kong. Main article: Education in Hong Kong. Main article: Media of Hong Kong. Hong Kong portal China portal Asia portal.
Residents predominantly speak Cantonese , the de facto regional standard. A person without Chinese nationality who has entered Hong Kong with a valid travel document, has ordinarily resided there for a continuous period not less than seven years, and is permanently domiciled in the territory would be legally recognised as a Hongkonger.
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Archived from the original on 30 November Office of the Communications Authority. Archived from the original on 20 June Retrieved 8 July Archived from the original on 27 March Retrieved 26 January Archived from the original on 24 August The HZMB project is part of a Beijing -driven strategy to create an economic hub and promote the economic development of the whole area of the Pearl River Delta , which is also known as Greater Bay Area.
The artificial island housing the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities HKBCF was reported drifting due to an unconventional method, hitherto unused in Hong Kong, for land reclamation using a row of circular steel cells pile-driven into the mud and filled with inert material to form a seawall.
The drifting of parts of the reclaimed island allegedly caused a delay in the HZMB project. The Highways Department denied various reports of movement up to 20 metres but admitted that parts of the reclaimed land had moved "up to six or seven metres",    claiming that some movement was expected and safety had not been jeopardised.
Mainland contractors also reportedly had difficulty constructing immersed tubes for their section of the project, with the director of the Guangdong National Development and Reform Commission stating that would be a difficult target to meet.
By , the Main Bridge of the HZMB project had experienced a cost overrun of about 10 billion yuan, blamed on increased labour and material costs, as well as changes to the design and construction schemes.
The number of deaths and injuries during the construction project came under scrutiny in Hong Kong. In addition to 9 fatalities on the mainland side,  more than ten deaths were reported on the Hong Kong side of the construction project, plus between and injuries, depending on the source.
Lawmaker Fernando Cheung also expressed concern over the unknown death toll on the Chinese side of the project, stating: "the project is known as the 'bridge of blood and tears' and we are only talking about the Hong Kong side.
We don't even know what is happening in China. I suppose the situation could be 10 times worse than that in Hong Kong. In , Hong Kong's Independent Commission Against Corruption ICAC arrested 21 employees two senior executives, 14 laboratory technicians and five laboratory assistants of Jacobs China Limited, a contractor of the Civil Engineering and Development Department for falsifying concrete test results, thus potentially risking the safety of the bridge for public use.
Hong Kong's Highways Department conducted tests again after the falsified results were exposed and found all test results met safety standards.
In April , the public and media raised questions over the integrity of the seawalls protecting the artificial islands at both ends of the undersea tunnel.
In footage taken by drone users and mariners, the dolosse installed at the edges of the artificial islands appear to have dislodged.
Some civil engineers suggested that there was an error in design. Subsequent aerial footage posted online showed a section of the dolosse breakwater completely underwater.
Civil engineer So Yiu-kwan told Hong Kong media on 12 April that the water level, at the time the photos were taken, was about 1.
He said the dolosse would offer no wave protection if entirely submerged, and further alleged that they had been installed backwards.
The dolphins found near waters of Lantau were worst hit with numbers dropping by 60 percent between April and March Feng Shui specialists suggest that the two-man-made islands of the HZMB look like two snake heads facing each other from above.
Critics say they have been constructed this way to negatively influence the Feng Shui of Hong Kong. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Fixed link consisting of tunnel and multiple bridges. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Chinese.
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